My windows have sills.
I like to use 1-2" foam. Either single, or paired and packing-tape connected to make a single panel. It comes in 4x8 sheets, you cut it to fit, and seal the edges with an iron and waxed paper / aluminum foil (because otherwise the edge you cut sheds bits).
This blocks light (you may need a bit of squishy foam around the edges for a perfect seal), as well as blocks heat / cold.
The panels are removable, so when you want to open the window you can take the panel out, and the window is fine.
Unfortunately they've gotten rid of the white-sided stuff, which allowed you to double face it so it was white on both sides - and didn't make your room look ghetto from the outside (and the inside). You can cover the inside with a curtain.
The temperature difference is significant on the cooling and heating bills, as well as making the room much more pleasant to be in, temperature-wise - and it's great for light too.
For the garbage-bag solution, some people are using the cheap garbage-bags (which are see-through), you'd want the contractor grade garbage bags which are 3 mils, or 5 mils thick.